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The Origin of Hakka

    Date:2017-12-02       Data source:客家事務委員會       


    描述: Record of Ciou Family Tree, Liouduei, Pingtung

    The Origin of Hakka

    Hakka people have a habit of editing and correcting the pedigree of a clan. Tracing Hakka’s family names in the pedigree of a clan, one can find that Hakka people originate from the Han ethnic group. They were inhabitants of northern China. The area of their activities was around today’s Shansi, Henan and Hubei. Linguists tried to verify a point, saying Hakka dialect is the closest to ancient rhymes of the Central Plains. Hakka’s system about the society centered around clannish rules and the practices, culture, customs, clothes, religious worship, geomancy and superstitions are similar to those of the old Central Plains.

    Because northern China had had destabilizing upheavals, Hakka people had five times experienced moving from one place to another. According to research by the historian, Siang-lin Luo, there are five periods when Hakka people moved from the Central Plains of the Yellow River’s drainage area into southern China. The details are as follows.

    * Record of Ciou Family Tree, Liouduei, Pingtung

    The first moving happened in the Yongjia period of Eastern Jin. This was the period of the invasion of China by the northern barbarians. China’s capital was moved from Luoyang to Nanjing. In the Central Plains, the northern barbarians spread all over, and also continuous military operations caused disorder. So a large number of aristocratic elites and ordinary people moved towards the area south of the Yangtze River one after another. To take refuge from danger, Hakka people’s ancestors also moved gradually southwards, crossing the Yellow River and then reaching the area of Hubei, Anhuei, southern Henan and Jiangsi.
    The second move occurred at the end of Tang and Song dynasties. This was mainly caused by the famous rebellion of Chao Huang, an incident forcing Hakka’s forefathers to move to southern Anhuei, southeastern Jiangsi, western and southern Fujian, and eastern and northeastern Guangdong.

    The third move happened from the end of Southern Song until the early years of the Ming dynasty. When Mongolians dominated at the Central Plains, the Song rulers tried to come south. Hakka people living in southern Jiansi and western Fujian then moved to eastern and northern Gunagdong to support the emperor and his royal family of the Song dynasty. So they fought against Mongolian soldiers, often sacrificing their lives.

    The fourth move took place from the end of the Ming dynasty into the reigns of the Cianlong emperor and Jiacing emperor of the Cing dynasty. Because Manchurians came southwards and became dominant, the population expanded. The Hakka people then moved from eastern and northern Guangdong and southern Jiangsi into central Guangdong and its seashore area, Sichuan, Guangsi, Hunan and Taiwan. A small part of Hakka people moved to southern Gueujhou, and to Heili of Sikang.




    描述: husbandry(Photographers / Siou-yun Li reproduce / Jhuo-ci Chen)

    The fifth move happened after the reigns of the Cianlong emperor and the Jiacing emperor. Owing to the influences of two incidents -- aboriginals fighting and the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace (1951-1864) -- the Hakka people moved from Sinsing and Taishan in the middle of Guangdong into various states such as Gao, Lei, Cin, and Lian, in eastern Guangdong.

    During the period of the invasion of China by the northern barbarians, there had been “the granted-client system” (gei ke jhih du) when people in the Central Plains moved to the south. Jhou Jiun Jhih in Nan Chi Shu states:

    * Photographers / Siou-yun Li reproduce / Jhuo-ci Chen
    “In Nanyue State was Guang-ling Jhen. People who often suffered thus immigrated here. These wandering people were regarded as guests. In the fourth year of the reign of the Yuang emperor, it was found that these people did not have their own household registration. For this reason, the granted-client system was arranged.”

    The first character of the term of two characters, ke jia (meaning: ‘Hakka’), was proclaimed in an imperial decree of the Yuan emperor in Jin dynasty. Later, until the Tang and Song dynasties, the Government’s household book had a special term, ke hu (Hakka household). The term ke jia was commonly used in people’s circles. When the household book was drawn up in the Song dynasty, people living in their native lands were called as jhu (meaning: ‘host’) where people immigrating from foreign lands were called as ke (meaning: ‘guest’). Thus the term ke jia (meaning: Hakka) started being widely used.




    Information for Reference:
    World of Hakka Language in Shin-Wu Elementary School
    2. Authour: Yun-dong Chen; Taiyuan Publisher; Hakka people in Taiwan
    3. Record of Ciou Family Tree, Liouduei, Pingtung