Kaohsiung Hakka Affairs Commission, Kaohsiung City Government
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Hakka Cultural Museum

Hakka Cultural Museum

Among the 1.5million citizens of Kaohsiung City, about0.25Million (or 17%)is of Hakka origin, and most of them came from Taioyuan, Hsinchu, Miaoli, Dongshih in Taichung County, Meinong, Panting, and Fukien and Guangdong Areas. Even though they are few in numbers, recently this group of people has been highly recognized by the Taiwan government. In hopes of preserving the Hakka culture, Mayor Wu, Den-Yih of Kaohsiung Government planned to build Hakka Culture Museum on the grounds on Tongmeng 2nd Road in Sanmin District (2nd Park)covering an area of 500pings above ground and 300pings underground in 1995at the cost of NT$70 million. The building was completed in November1998. The exhibition pieces were donated by Kaohsiung Bao Chung Royal Guard Temple, the faith center of Hakka. The pieces include tools and instruments for production and transportation in ancient farmers, the daily household utensils, ritual ware in marriage and funerals, plus some old building materials and photos showing Hakka relics. In addition to exhibiting and preserving the cultural pieces of the Hakka people, the Museum provides a ground for culture and history lovers as well as students for their studies, so as to extend and expand the influence of the Hakka culture.

(For detail, see the description plaque inside the museum.) Also to Cooperate with the 2nd phase of the construction of “Kaohsiung City New Hakka Culture Park”, which is expected to be finished by May 2009,the current “Hakka Culture Section” will be re-designed as “Hakka Culture Center”.



Hakka Library

In March, 2003, in order to strengthen the promotion of Hakka cultural affairs, Mayor Frank Hsieh, despite tight budgeting, managed to appropriate money for the establishment of Hakka library. In addition to preservation and display of the original artifacts in the Kaohsiung, Hakka Culture Museum, this library has been established to strengthen the Hakka culture and make available Hakka literatures, history records and other additional materials and equipment for research into the Hakka culture. This move has provided added functions to the original mission of Hakka Culture Museum.

At the Library, in addition to the collection of various Hakka literatures, publication and local historical records, a unique treasure called the, “Pedigree of 100 Odd Family”, is available for studying the origins of various families for several ethnic groups in Kaohsiung, not limited to the Hakka people.

We hope that our offers and services will meet the needs of all interested parties, and we welcome any suggestions that may be used to enrich and better our services.




Museum of Historical Relics

Central China is where people originated. With five major migrations in the past, Jiayingzhou of Guangdong Province has become the second native place for the Hakka people in Taiwan. Jiayingzhou has currently changed its name to Meizhou City, with jurisdiction over seven municipalities such as Mei Xian, Jiao Ling, Ning, Wu Hua, Ping Yuan, Da Pu, and Fengshun. Following the migration of the Fukkienese, a large Hakka population migrated to Taiwan during the reign of Emperor Kangxi of the Ching Dynasty.

Good morals such as loyalty ad filial devotion to family, industriousness and thriftiness, as well as sincerity are the hereditary features of Hakka Culture. The museum is decorated in the traditional Hakka style. The museum presents various historical relics such as agricultural facilities. Daily used articles, folk customs, etc.

After the establishment of the museum, many citizens, school and kindergarten pupils came and visited the museum. The museum has even attracted various Taiwanese social organizations, as well as overseas visitors, to visit and gain a greater understanding of how the ancient Hakka people progressed, and at the same time to appreciate the beauty of Hakka traditions.



The origin of Hakka

The fore fathers of Hakka ethnic group lived in Central China, i.e. at the present Henan, west party of Shangdong, southeastern part of Hebei and Shanxi as well as the eastern part of Sanxi, located in the center of China. After many civil wars, rebellions and many other reshuffling of people throughout several generations, they moved from one location to another. Nevertheless, they always grouped together and strived to maintain a uniform language, customs and living routines without being assimilated by the local people. During the Sin Jing Dynasty when 5 tribes from northern and north-western China invaded and occupied central China, people relocated from one place to other place, and the governments of local states started with a system of Hakka (Visitor).

In the County Record in Nan-Chi Chronicle, it stated that “people were suffering from the war ad rebellions and most of the refugees took shelter under wealthy families as visitors (Hak=guest). The emperor gave the decree that as the refugees had lost their household registration, they shall be recorded as Hak, which is the origin of Hak endorsing system “.The government at that time, for the convenience of administration, separated the household registration into two types, where those originally lived in the area were called Natives and those who came from the north of China were called Hakka. This is the origin of the Hakka name. Since they migrated thousands of miles away from their homeland, they went though much hardship and were often threatened by warlords, robbers and gang’s men. They couldn’t find fertile cultivated land, so they had no choice but to settle in waste and barren land. Harnessed by such environment, they formed a tradition of thriftiness, diligence, the ability to endure hardship and resistant to toil creating a future for their descendents and building up a principle of “Working in the field during good days studying during rainy days t glorify ancestors and to enrich descendents bringing honor to their forefathers.”




The Migration of Hakkas

Hakkas are truly the most prominent and sturdy population in the Chinese races. Their origins, migrations, and their undergoing have cultured them to have affection for their race and home, and a common unity when standing up against their enemies. As for the future development and progress of the Chinese races, we can certainly say that Hakkas have remarkably made a lot of contributions.

First Migration: With the influence of the invasions of the five nomadic tribes in China (The Wu Hu) during the time of East Jin, the Hakkas migrated from Central China to Southern Eyu , and from Wangan along the Northern south coast of Yangtze River up to the downriver of Ganjiang. (137879 A.D.)

Second Migration: After the Rebellion of Huang Chao in Tang Dynasty, the Hakkas migrated to Wannan, southeast of Gan, southwest of Fukien Province and down to the northeast border of Guangdong Province.(880~1126 A.D.)

Third Migration: As Emperor Kao Tsung of Sung Dynasty escaped to the south, and following the invasion of Yuan, partial Hakka ancestors migrated to the northern and eastern part of Guangdong Province.(1127~1644A.D)

Fourth Migration: During the period of the falling of Ming Dynasty and the establishment of Ching Dynasty, with the influence caused by the invasion of the Manchurians, the Hakkas had migrated to the central part of Guangdong and coastal area, to the Provinces of Sichuan, Guangxi and Hunan, and to Taiwan respectively. There was a small population migrated to the southern part of Guizhou Province, Hueili of Xikang Province and Southeast Asia.

Fifth Migration: With the influences caused by the incident of The Hakka- Punti War in Guangdong and the Taiping Rebellion during the period of Emperor Tong Chih, a part of Hakkas had migrated to southern Guangdong Province and Hainan, as well as overseas.(After 1867)

This part is excerpted from the research of the historian. Prof. Luo, Siang-Lin.



Background of Hakka People’s Immigration to Taiwan

According to the existing literature records, Hakka people’s immigration to Taiwa can be traced back to the middle and late periods of the Ming Dynasty.

The Hakka people’s immigration to Taiwan in the early periods was around 25the or 26the year (1686or 1687) of Kangxi of Ching Dynasty when the ban o maritime trade was just lifted . A great deal of people from Fukien and Guangdong immigrated easteardly to Taiwan due to the prevailing circumstances.

However, the Hakka people from east Guangdong came to Taiwan later and were restricted by varied government decrees. so most of the Hakka people immigrating to Taiwan at that time earned livings outside the East Gate of Fujhih (the present Taiwan City) by cultivating vegetable farms.

In the 27th year of the rule of the Kangxi Emperor, there was one team, which consisted of Hakka soldiers, among task forces of Ching Dyasty recruited by Chiaying State. They were discharged after four-year service at Aping, Tainan, and Agongdian and settled at Lanlan Manor (the present Wandan Twnship, Pingtung County)in which they then were engaged in cultivating uncultivated lands. The Hakka people heard that there were abundant uncultivated lands on the east coast of lower Danshuei River around the 30th year of the reign of Kangxi Emperor, they then claimed this area despite threat of the malaria epidemic and indigenous people. After the death of Shih-lang in the 35th year of Kangxi, the decree which prohibited Chaohuei people from moving to Taiwan was gradually neglected, and the Hakka people from east Guangdong followed into the area, which resulted in an unexpected increase of population and extensive reclamation areas.

In the beginning, most of the Hakka people lived in western Taiwan. Afterward, being affected by the Holo people, some of the Hakka people were assimilated, and some gathered in the mountain areas, which formed a new group of Hakka people with a different dialect. Most Hakka people who came to Taiwan from their homeland landed at Dagou Harbor, lower Danshuei Harbor. or Donggand, and then, occupied Jhutian, Wanluan, and Gaoshu of Pingtung, and Meinong of Kaohsiung along lower Danshuei River. Later, there were other Hakka people landing at Lugang and Caogang and reclaiming Chaghua, Yunlin, and Nantou or landing at Bengshan Harbor and Da-an Harbor and developing Dajia, Fongyaun, and Dongshih; going on shore at Fangli River and Tunsiao River and claiming Fangli, Togsiao, Baishatun,ect; disembarking at Jhonggand and Houlonggang and living in Miaoli;landing at Jhucian Harbor and Hongmao Harbor and developing Hsinchu area, or landing at Nangang and Guanyin and becoming the master in Taoyuan.



Kaohsiung Hakka Cultural Affairs Foundation

Origin: After the inauguration of the Mayor of Kaohsiung City, HSIEH, chang-ting, in 1999, in order to unite the Hakka people and promote Hakka traditional culture activities, the government appropriated NT$30 million in March 2000 to establish Kaohsiung Hakka Cultural Affairs Foundation to reinforce Hakka cultural affairs and manage Hakka Cultural Relics Museum, which not only exhibits and conserves cultural relics, but is also actively combating the declining Hakka culture, promoting ballad teaching, and preserving their cultural heritage.

Organization:17 directors, 5 supervisors, electing 1 board chairman, appointing 1 executive officer. 1 secretary



Kaohsiung Hakka Affairs Commission

Origin: For sustainable development of Hakka affairs, Mayor of Kaohsiung City, HSIEH, Chang-ting gave instruction to establish one first-grade organization within the government on Dec.31,2003 and appointed Civil Affairs Bureau the draft “Organizational Regulation of Kaohsiung Hakka Affairs Commission. “Kaohsiung City Council held a public hearing. “Establish Hakka Affairs Commission or not” on June 16,2004 to collect public opinion. According to the 39th Discussion, 3rd Regular Meeting, 6th Term of Kaohsiung city Council on July 3, all councilors passed “Organizational Regulation of Kaohsiung Hakka Affairs Commission”; Preparation office was established on Aug 10. The Kaohsiung Hakka Affairs Commission was formally established on Jan. 1,2005, selecting Mr.LIAO, Sog-syong to serve as the first chairperson, and started operations from Jan.27, taking “Health, Vitality, New Hakka” as the administrative outline, Effective July 6,20074, Mr. Chung Kung-Chao, succeeding to the Chief Committeeman, devotes to the policy of “Promoting Hakka Culture Everywhere”.

Organization: “Appointing 1 chairperson, 1 chief secretary, two sections and one office, 11 members in total.

conformance level "A+" (open new window) Address:No.215, Tongmeng 2nd Rd., Sanming District, Kaohsiung City, 80743 【MAP】 Tel: 886-7-3165666 Fax:886-7-3165366
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