Kaohsiung Hakka Affairs Commission, Kaohsiung City Government
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About Hakka
*Hakka people living in Kaohsiung
*Kaohsiung Hakka Development History

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Hakka people living in Kaohsiung
Hakka people living in Kaohsiung


Photographers / Siou-yun Li reproduce / Jhuo-ci Chen

In the Cing dynasty, Kaohsiung City was only a small fishing port. The more prosperous areas were the Old Town (today’s Zuoying) and the New Town (today’s Fengshan) of Fengshan County. These two areas once upon a time had ‘King of Three Mountains’ (san shang guo wang) temples which are Hakka people’s religious centers. From these temples, it can be observed that Hakka people made a contribution to the development of these two areas. In addition, in today’s Yancheng and Youchang areas, there are also similar temples. So, in the Cing dynasty, although Kaohsiung was the main gathering area for Hakka people, Hakka’s ancestors were present in the developing history of Taiwan.

In terms of Kaohsiung City’s Hakka ethnicity, its ‘original inhabitant areas’ are mainly Taoyuan, Hsinchu and Miaoli; Dongshih of middle Taiwan; and Meinong and Pingtung in southern Taiwan. Their Hakka people are called ‘northern Hakka,’ ‘middle Hakka,’ and ‘southern Hakka’ respectively. The period of their earliest immigration to Kaohsiung was around the early period of the Japanese occupation and these Hakka people were northern ones. Then, middle Hakka people moved in during the middle period of the Japanese occupation. Finally, the southern Hakka moved to Kaohsiung City during the later period of Japanese occupation and also after the Second World War.


Kaohsiung Bus / Source: archives of old photographs in Kaohsiung Museum of History

Northern Hakka people coming to Kaohsiung City mainly engage in being tenant farmers or sharecroppers. They are found in today’s Sanming District of Kaohsiung City to Wusong area of Kaohsiung County. Also, Sanming District becomes the area having the most Hakka people in Kaohsiung City. Meantime, they also brought their local gods to the new place so that Taiwan’s Hakka’s social areas have Yimin Temple (yiming: people with a strong sense of justice). They also organize grand ceremonies of worship.

Middle Hakka people coming from Dongshih to Kaohsiung City mainly work in industries of traffic, transportation and lumber. Kaohsiung City’s important public transportation company ‘Kaohsiung Bus’ is run by Hakka people from Dongshih.

Southern Hakka people from Pingtung’s Liouduei still retain Han people’s spirit of ‘farming and studying as the base for family.’ Building up money from farming is slower, but studying habits remain. So many Hakka people have studied at teachers’ universities offering them scholarships. After graduating, they engage in teaching. So many schools’ principals are Hakka people from Liouduei. This is the southern Hakka people’s characteristic. In addition, among the competent authorities taking charge of public affairs, the southern Hakka people can often be seen.


Sources of Information:
1. http://www.kcc.gov.tw/magazine/jun/index.htm
Journal of Kaohsiung City Council
2. http://cabu.kcg.gov.tw/hakka/views/index.htm
Kaohsiung Hakka Cultural Artifact Museum
3. Department of Information & Bureau of Civil Affairs, Kaohsiung City Government, Hakka people in Kaohsiung, pp.12-17.

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